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May 2019

Linking BIM to project management tools in an accessible and affordable way brings huge benefits to the planning process and the efficiency of construction. 

4D-Planning in construction management is a method of visualizing the schedule. This method is based on Building information modeling (BIM) which is a process that came to revolutionize the work -flow of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry. The fourth dimension of BIM focuses on linking the 3D geometrical models with time and scheduling. The visualization of the schedule using 4D planning methods if combined with other scheduling methods facilitates communication and decision making throughout planning and construction phase. The opportunities of 4D planning also improve procurement management and spatial constrains reinforcing and supplement the location-based scheduling. Another approach that gains more and more ground is the linkage of 4D BIM with the Lean construction practices. This article investigates the values and benefits that 4D Planning intends to create simultaneously with the barriers and constrains that need to be addressed to minimize the cost and time of construction projects and maximize the benefits and effectiveness; how 4D planning supports some of the most common scheduling practices is also a matter of interest.

By combining 3D models with scheduling tools in one application, 4D Planning and Controlling enables you to use the visual power of 4D planning to:

  • Model-based scheduling and model-based estimating help the team to work on measurement details of the structure. 4D immediately increases the predictability and profitability of the project, delivering them on budget and on time.
  • Ease even the biggest of projects’ way from sketch to actual construction using 4D. Taking the advantages of 4D to bring out the most effective communication among the building team members.
  • Identify problems that may not be visible via traditional schedules
  • Run scenarios to assess feasibility of execution and find the best solutions
  • See the impact in the 3D view as you update the Gantt chart
  • Study how the build process will appear at different project stages
  • Integrate as-built information
  • Create better tenders, faster
  • Optimize your budget by careful scheduling

May 2019

What is Building Information Modelling (BIM)?

It is a process for creating and managing information on a construction project across the project lifecycle. One of the key outputs of this process is the Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the built asset. This model draws on information assembled collaboratively and updated at key stages of a project. Creating a digital Building Information Model enables those who interact with the building to optimize their actions, resulting in a greater whole life value for the asset.

How can BIM helps you?

It assembles all of the information about every component of a building, making it possible for anyone to access that information for any purpose. Thus, the risk of mistakes or discrepancies is reduced, and abortive costs minimized.

BIM data can be used to exemplify the entire building life-cycle, from cradle to cradle, from inception and design to demolition and materials reuse. Spaces, systems, products and sequences can be shown in relative scale to each other and, in turn, relative to the entire project. And by signalling conflict detection BIM prevents errors creeping in at the various stages of development/ construction.

April 2019

Construction companies began adopting CPM in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Critical Path Method (CPM) is project modelling technique developed in the late 1950s. By the late 1970’s and early 1980s, the personal computer made CPM affordable and accessible to the masses; so how has construction performance fared since CPM became the standard for construction planning and scheduling? For years, we have all seen the numbers and charts put up for debate showing no evidence that the original hopes and excitement of CPM is living up to its original expectation.

In construction, the CPM model is based on the input of individuals who use personal experience and historic project performance to inform their work. People must read 2D design documents showing what the project looks like first at the start (existing conditions) and what the finished project will be on completion.

To be clear, the construction delivery approach, the field operations plan, is created from the imagination of a person(s) who is required to envision the activities, duration, and dependencies of the specific project from seeing the existing conditions at the start and the construction design for the completed project at the end. Once created, they can review the delivery approach with others using the Gantt chart or network diagram.

It will never going to be enough to improve construction performance if CPM alone. Project today are more likely to end in a dispute or claim rather than be completed on time or on budget, lawyers love the baseline versus actual CPM artefacts to help sort out the mess. CPM should remain part of the foundation for planning, scheduling and the controls systems required for managing construction operations and it will continue to be required for the foreseeable future.

How can we improve performance?

Start by recognizing that 3D design changes everything and drives complexity, and for at least 60 years all engineering lead industries have known it. BIM is organised and structured by 3D spatial model. Today, many construction projects utilize 3D models for the final integrated product design’s spatial coordination to avoid fabricating and installing any component in the wrong location before production operations begin.

When it comes to 4D, the industry falsely led to believe that creating a schedule by reading 2D drawings and keyboarding into the legacy CPM software and then linking the CPM to the 3D model is right. SYNCHRO Software is doing 4D. Creating construction operations directly from 3D model at any level of 3D model detail is where 4D is the best. The critical path network and 2D documents are the derivative, they are outputs of 4D. 4D leads construction companies’s workflow and has envolved their construction management processes into the modern digital age.

April 2019

Critical Path

Critical path project management (CPM) is a technique used to complete projects on time by focusing on key tasks. One path through all the inter-connected tasks is the fastest avenue to take when completing any project. By focusing on the tasks that make up the critical path, the project manager maximizes the chances of completing the project on time.

Longest Path

The Longest Path is the longest continuous path of activities through a project, which controls project early completion. It is possible for otherwise defined critical path activities to not be on the longest path and longest path activities to not show calculated critical float.

Is there overlap between Longest Path and Critical Path?

Let say it this way – the Longest Path is a Critical Path, but not all Critical Paths are the Longest.

Because we can alter Critical Path through constraints, actuals, deadlines and other mechanisms, often we end up with a path that has more Critical activities than would be on the Longest Path.

If you start with a baseline schedule that has no actuals, no constraints and no deadline, and you perform some CPM scheduling on it, the path of 0 Total Float will be the Longest Path. If you add up the durations of all activities on that 0-float path, it will have the longest Total Duration.

If you calculate the Longest Path for a project that does have actuals, constraints, a deadline, etc, you will come up with a path of activities that are “important”, need I say “small-c critical” to the timely completion of the project.

Which one should I use?

I would strongly suggest you get to know your project’s Longest Path and monitor it. What the client wants to see might be something else, but the timely completion of Longest Path activities leads to your project finishing on time.

Most software packages let you track both Critical Path and Longest Path. Track both.

Lastly, I would advocate educating yourself on how the software that you use defines Critical Path and what sorts of things (constraints, relationships, lag,  etc.) will affect an activity’s Total Float.

March 2019

It is the path of 0 Total Float Through the project

Critical path project management (CPM) is a technique used to complete projects on time by focusing on key tasks. One path through all the inter-connected tasks is the fastest avenue to take when completing any project. By focusing on the tasks that make up the critical path, the project manager maximizes the chances of completing the project on time.

No Project Deadline

By setting a deadline on the project (a Must Finish By date in Primavera P6), it results in the appearance of negative Total Float if you are late, and positive float if you are early.

No Constrains

Constraints affect an activity’s Total Float value. Constrained activities can show negative Total Float and can drive negative float to their successors or predecessors. Applying constraints throughout a project will affect what activities are Critical. And so, again the path of 0-total float through the project eludes you.

No Actual

A project with actuals may not show a path of 0-float either. The actuals and the order of execution can affect the activities’ Total Float as well.

February 2019

What Is It?

It is a quick approximation of the risk severity and does not reflect the rigor of a detailed, numerical analysis. The overall risk level can be as simple high, medium, or low (or even high/low), depending on the severity of impact and the probability of the event occurring.

High, Medium, Low Table

Table 1

It helps identify high, medium and low level risks by looking at the probability of the occurrence and the overall impact to your project. For instance, a highly likely / high impact event is obviously a high risk.

Ignore, Caution, Respond Chart

Table 2

The green boxes represent a combination of probability and impact that you may safely be able to ignore. The red boxes represent combinations that need to be managed. The yellow box represent risks that should be evaluated individually to determine if you should respond or not.

January 2019


According to English Oxfords, risk is ubiquitous. In other words, risk can be defined as the potential events that might occur in the project throughout its implementation phase. Thus, it requires strategies to migrate the consequences of the potential risks occurring. Effective strategies for risk enables project team to identify your project’s strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Hence, as project control team for Pan Borneo Package project, PCSS manage the risk by using Risk Management Workshop which following the process that has been suggested by PMBOK Fifth Edition. The objectives are:

  • Determine the current mitigation strategies for effectiveness and;
  • Determine possible reassessments should the mitigation be deemed not to be effective
  • Re-assess the identified risks for changes to the probability and consequence factors
  • Identify any new risks

Projects by definition is about to bring the changes and ofcourse, every change that we made has a risk. Therefore, every project that we implemented, we need to manage the potential risk.


Risk Identification

The risk identification process will be executed through a workshop environment as this allows brainstorming across all stakeholders. The workshop will be very structured to allow the identification of the potential risk events by following the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) as means of maintaining systematic focus on the project deliverables.

Risk Analysis

Grey literature (or grey literature) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports, working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations.

Risk Action

This is also known as risk response actions. After calculating the possible outcomes you need to decide how to respond to each risk. While small risks may not affect your project at all and may not be worthy of spending time on those, leaving matters completely unattended isn’t a wise decision.

Risk Monitoring

The risk monitoring is to monitor the individual risks contained therein and update the register on a period basis and/or as new risks surface. It’s often very important to analyze and address serious risks as soon as they arise, immediately applying the appropriate risk response plan.

Risk Control

Then, it has to be controlled. This is the final process of risk management and defines which approach is more appropriate to deal with the individual risks identified in the risk register. The four basic approaches discussed:

  • Risk Avoidance – an informed decision not to engage in the activity that could give rise to the risk
  • Risk Reduction – involve methods that reduce the severity of the loss or the likelihood of the loss from occuring
  • Risk Retention – involve accepting the loss from occurs
  • Risk Transfer – involve transferring the risk to a third party such as an insurance contract
  • Various departments within the organisation

PCSS Welcome our industry partners, delegates and clients to the 4th International Energy Week (IEW) at the Borneo Convention Centre, Kuching from 23th – 25th January 2018.

IEW’18 will encompass the ElectroPowerAsia 2018 Exhibition, PetroleumAsia 2018 Exhibition, Asia Infrastructure 2018 Exhibition and the IEW’18 Conference and Technology Symposium. It is an integrated energy event that generate opportunities.

Visit our booth (no. 20), for more information on 4D The Advanced Digital Construction, please contact;-
Mr Andy Tiong – HP: 0138181445 Email:
Ms Afreda Aleng -HP: 0198465097 Email:




Before you start thinking about your construction project visualization, you have to decide exactly what do you expect, how will you achieve it and why do you need it?

The fact that, there is a confusion between the construction project 4D simulation and realistic presentation for many AEC companies especially who are new in the market


The architecture, engineering, and construction (“AEC”) industry has made significant strides in the implementation and use of new virtual design and construction (“VDC”) tools. Building projects in virtual reality during planning, pre- construction, and construction phases of a project can improve a project team’s efficiency and assist in the resolution of problems before they become a reality in the field, when the solutions have a higher cost and risk.

1.Realistic construction presentation (Architectural Visualization):

It was only since a few years ago when architects have reached a point where their visualizations have become all-dominant in their profession, the digital revolution have brought together the construction industry and information technologies in ways that were once unbelievable, Architectural visualization has become such an important commodity for the construction industry.

Architects nowadays are so addicted with creating stunning visualizations because they believe their clients understand images better than the plans on blueprints. They are very keen on creating beautiful architectural visualizations and yet it is almost impossible to always become updated with the best and latest architectural visualization software.

Because of the constant evolution of the tools used in creating architectural visualizations, clients may now be presented with a new breed of visualization technique. Architects now have access to the latest software used by moviemakers and game developers which produce realistic and beautiful scenes.

After information technology and the construction industry, a new set of industries are now having the lines between them, the game industry and the rendering engine developing companies. The moviemakers and game developers can look to architects for advice in designing and modeling buildings for their projects while the architects are now looking to them for instructions on creating a new form of architectural visualization where the renderings can be presented in a navigable manner. This hybridization between these two industries is otherwise known as Gamification.

These engines allow the users to select between multiple options of compositions and materials in the proposed building and see the changes in real-time. Static renderings sometimes fail to impart on the client the building’s spatial and experiential qualities. The engines allow the client to walk around the proposed building virtually in the most realistic and the highest definition possible as if they were playing a video game. The software developers aim to give their clients an experience of what it feels like to “live” in that building as though it was already built by allowing them to move through the project virtually as freely as they would after it is built.

Video :


2. 4D Simulation (Planning Visualization):

Project schedules alone are not detailed enough for performing certain process analyses. Some parameters used for planning are lost once a schedule is created and some schedules are not conducive to considering “what-if” scenarios. 4D modeling solves many of these problems by enabling project teams to simulate the virtual construction of a project. The following sections will provide an overview of 4D modeling and its typical uses.

Standalone 4D Models

Figure 1 depicts the components of a standalone 4D model. These components include a 3D model of the project design, representative of the product, and the project schedule, representative of the process and plan. “Virtual” project models can also incorporate other parameters, such as cost and resources, and are referred to as XD models, where X represents the number of additional parameters included beyond the product and process.

Comparative 4D Models

Comparative 4D models involve the simultaneous review of multiple, yet related 4D models in adjacent computer screen “windows.” The playback of such 4D models is synchronized through the use of internal or external software links. related to a comparative 4D modeling scenario that allows the user to perform a visual comparison of a single 3D model and two schedules. This scenario uses one 3D model that is linked to two schedules

Video :


Simply , there is a great difference between the scheduling visualization and Arch visualization :

a.Input : 3D model , material , LOD , schedule , etc…

b.Tools/techniques : Software , work flow , etc…

c.Output : 4D advanced simulation video for project management purpose or realistic fancy presentation for marketing purpose.

So to create a 4D planning simulation you don’t need a 3D model containing a full realistic finishing materials and details since the 4D simulation will be used for the project management only ,but on the other hand for the Arch. visualization you will need the full 3D model containing the realistic materials and finishes.But what about having both of them in the same model and video ?

From my point of view it is not a bad idea since you want to create a construction sequence video with realistic finishes,but keep in mind that it will take a lot of time and effort because you will go through the both ways, also no need show the exact construction sequence time line in both of them ( for example : planning visualization every week sequence and Arch. visualization show every 3 months sequence )

Video :

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